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  1. #11
    Smiling Down On Youse SurferJoe46's Avatar
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    May 2005
    Hamilton, Montana, USA

    Default Re: R.I.P. Chuck Berry

    Rock, R&B, Pop and Southern Soul (1960-1970)

    The effect of the British Invasion on black pop
    There is a large consensus that the British Invasion hindered early 1960s pop music by black artists
    Some artists and styles survived
    Phil Spector, Leiber and Stoller, and others had hit records in 1964
    Shangri-Las' "Leader of the Pack" went to number one for Leiber and Stoller's Red Bird label in 1964
    The Righteous Brothers' song "You've Lost That Lovin' Feeling" went went to number one in 1965
    That song was a Phil Spector production
    The Drifters' with "Under the Boardwalk" reached number four in 1964
    Many artists did not remain on charts after the British Invasion
    The Ronettes' "Walking in the Rain" only made it to number twenty-nine
    The Brill Building approach to making records died out with the British Invasion
    There is a temptation to compare the British Invasion to the 1950s
    British musicians played music inspired or derived from black music styles in the 1960s
    White groups and artists covered a great number of black pop songs in the 1950s
    New black pop music arrived during the 1960s from new artists and other parts of the country
    Detroit, Michigan
    Memphis, Tennessee
    Muscle Shoals, Alabama
    Atlanta, Georgia
    Styles from these regions raise the question about whether one style could be "blacker" than others
    Motown records was an independent label founded in Detroit, Michigan
    Had enormous commercial success that paralleled the Beatles' success timeline in the early 1960s
    Built the sound of the records around styles that appealed to a white audience
    That generated accusations that Motown had "sold out" for big profits
    Southern soul from the Memphis area remained truer to musical roots in black culture
    Motown: Black music for white audiences
    Founded by Berry Gordy Jr. in 1959
    Gordy had several jobs before starting a record label
    Professional boxer
    Worked for his father's plastering company
    Owned a record store
    Worked on the Ford assembly line
    Gordy was interested in jazz but knew it wasn't commercially successful
    A boxing friend, Jackie Wilson, was going into singing and needed songs
    Gordy collaborated with Billy Davis (a.k.a. Tyran Carlo) on songs for Wilson
    "Reet Petite" (1957)
    "Lonely Teardrops" (p7 r1, 1958)
    "That's Why (1 Love You So)" (p13 r2, 1959)
    Gordy formed Motown Records in 1959 and patterned many songs after other successful records
    First hit was in 1960, Barrett Strong's "Money (That's What 1 Want)" (p23 r2)
    The Marvelettes' "Please Mr. Postman" (p1, r1, 1961) draws from Brill Building "girl group" style
    By the Contours' "Do You Love Me" (p3 r1, 1962) resembles the Isley Brothers' style
    Gordy knew that the best commercial potential was in crossover records
    From rhythm and blues to pop
    He used the same approach as Chuck Berry: the original version would become the crossover
    That eliminated the need (or opportunity) for other labels to cover the records
    This concept brought huge financial rewards
    Records generally charted higher on the rhythm and blues charts but pop was always close
    Gordy studied the successful models and used them in his own company
    The Leiber and Stoller idea of songwriters producing their songs had worked
    That idea had been adopted by the Brill Building successfully so Gordy employed it in Motown
    The original Motown songwriter-producer team from 1960 to 1964 included
    William "Mickey" Stevenson
    William "Smokey" Robinson
    This team is responsible for several early hits
    The first Miracles hit "Shop Around" (p2 r1, 1960)
    Written by Gordy and Robinson, produced by Gordy
    Robinson wrote and produced several hits for Motown singer Mary Wells from 1962 to 1964:
    "The One Who Really Loves You" (p8 r2, 1962)
    "You Beat Me to the Punch" (p9 r1, 1962)
    "Two Lovers" (p7 r1, 1962)
    "My Guy" (p1, 1964)
    The Producers
    From 1964 to 1967 Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Eddie Holland created many hits for groups recording for the label:
    Four Tops
    Martha and the Vandellas
    From 1967 to 1970 Norman Whitfield produced hits for the Temptations
    Other important late 1960s Motown producers included
    Frank Wilson
    The team of Valerie Ashford and Nick Simpson
    Quality Control—Motown style
    Recordings were produced in two adjoining Detroit houses called "Hitsville, USA"
    Gifted and experienced studio musicians helped producers craft their arrangements
    Similar to Phil Spector's "wrecking crew"
    Musicians were talented jazz musicians, adept at improvising and spontaneous "arranging"
    Holland-Dozier-Holland sessions frequently began with only sparse musical directions
    A core group of musicians were at the center of the production process
    They played on most of the recordings
    Pianist Earl Van Dyke
    Drummer Bennie Benjamin
    Electric bassist James Jamerson
    They were the studio band, "the Funk Brothers," responsible for the mid-1960s "Motown sound"
    In 2003 a documentary was produced about the Funk Brothers
    Standing in the Shadows of Motown
    The film featured interviews with surviving members of the studio band
    Attention was finally focused on the musicians who were so much a part of that style
    Gordy held a weekly meeting with the Motown staff to decide which records they thought would be hits
    Artist development was incorporated into the label
    Purpose was to teach low-income-bred artists how to behave in all possible social situations
    Former Broadway choreographer Cholly Atkins was hired to teach dance and stage movements
    Dance movements had to be refined and graceful
    Motown artists had to project an image of class and sophistication
    Gordy hired a charm school teacher, Maxine Powell, to teach proper manners and etiquette
    Artists learned how to speak and move with charm and grace
    They were groomed to be able to appear at elegant performance venues
    They were to be prepared to perform at the White House or Buckingham Palace
    The Motown artists
    The Temptations
    The Temptations formed in 1961 and were one of Motown's top acts from 1964 to 1972
    They were made up of members of two Detroit area groups: the Distants and the Primes
    Otis Williams
    Melvin Franklin
    Al Bryant, who was replaced by David Ruffin in 1963
    Eddie Kendricks
    Paul Williams (no relation to Otis)
    Dennis Edwards replaced Ruffin in 1968
    The group had a hit in early 1964: "The Way You Do the Thing You Do" (p11)
    Written and produced by Smokey Robinson
    Exemplifies Robinson's clever approach to lyrics
    "You got a smile so bright, you could've been a candle," works with Robinson's cheerful music
    Features Kendrick's high tenor vocal
    Robinson went on to write and produce more Temptations hits
    "My Girl" (p1 r1, 1965) featuring Ruffin on lead vocals
    "Get Ready" (p29 r1, 1965)
    Norman Whitfield produced several Temptations hits in the later part of the 1960s
    "Ain't Too Proud to Beg" (p13 r1, 1 966)
    "I Know I'm Losing You" (p8 r1, 1966)
    "You're My Everything" (p6 r3, 1967)
    "Cloud Nine" (p6 r2 1968) displays influence of Sly and the Family Stone
    The Supremes
    Best example of the Motown sound from the mid to late 1960s
    The extension of the Brill Building's girl-group concept to highest level of commercial success
    Formed in Detroit in 1959 as a sister group to the Primes, they were called the Primettes
    Diana Ross
    Mary Wilson
    Florence Ballard, replaced by Cindy Birdsong in 1967
    Unsuccessful releases until Holland-Dozier-Holland produced five consecutive number one hits
    "Where Did Our Love Go" (p1, 1964)
    "Baby Love" (1964)
    "Come See about Me" (r3, 1964)
    "Stop! In the Name of Love" (r2, 1965)
    "Back in My Arms Again" (r 1, 1965)
    "Reflections" (p2 r4, 1967)
    Holland-Dozier-Holland left Motown in 1967 but the Supremes had another hit in 1968
    "Love Child" (p1 r2, 1968)
    Diana Ross left in 1969 to pursue a solo career
    Their last single featuring Ross was "Someday We'll Be Together" (p1 r1, 1969)
    The Supremes and Holland-Dozier-Holland
    One of the most successful writing and production teams in popular music
    "Baby Love" is a good example of the H-D-H/Supremes approach during the mid 1960s
    The introduction uses an arrangement idea similar to their previous hit "Where Did Our Love Go?"
    A sound like handclaps: actually wooden 2x4s slapping together
    Introduction that features a series of pulsating piano chords with drums
    Vibraphone (or "vibes"): similar to the xylophone but with a sustained sound with vibrato
    Simple verse form
    Seven verses repeated mostly without much change in accompaniment
    Accompaniment includes electric guitar and bass after the introduction
    Other Supremes provide backup vocals
    Nice twists to the arrangement
    Third verse: saxophone takes a solo for the last eight measures
    Verse 5 introduces a change of key: up a 1/2 step
    Holland-Dozier-Holland were so successful because they repeated ideas that worked
    In the first two Supremes songs the word "Baby" is frequently used
    The first three singles use simple verse form
    Contrasting verse-chorus form used in "Stop! In The Name of Love" and "Back in My Arms Again"
    The Four tops
    Formed in 1954 and remained together for four decades
    Levi Stubbs
    Obie Benson
    Lawrence Payton
    Duke Fakir
    The male counterparts to the Supremes from 1964 to 1967
    A string of H-D-H hits that included
    "Baby I Need Your Loving" (p, 1964)
    "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie, Honey Bunch)" (p1 r1, 1965)
    "It's the Same Old Song" (p5 r2, I 965)
    "Reach Out I'll Be There" (p1 r1, 1966)
    "Standing in the Shadows of Love" (p6 r2, 1966)
    Holland-Dozier-Holland arrangement characteristics frequently included classical references
    Orchestral strings
    Classical harmonic progressions
    Martha (Reeves) and the Vandellas formed in Detroit in 1962
    Recorded for Chess Records as members of the Del-Phis, they became the Vandellas in 1963
    Rosalyn Ashford
    Annette Beard (replaced by Betty Kelly Beard in 1964)
    Reeves and friends sang backup on Marvin Gaye's "Stubborn Kind of Fellow" (p46 r8, 1962)
    Holland-Dozier-Holland produced most of the Martha and the Vandellas hits
    "Heat Wave" (p4 r1, 1963)
    "Quicksand" (p8, 1963)
    "Dancing in the Street" (p2, 1964) was produced by Mickey Stevenson
    "Nowhere to Run" (p8 r5, 1965)
    "Jimmy Mack" (p10 r1, 1967)
    Martha and the Vandellas vocal style was drawn from gospel music
    Powerful full-throated vocal style from Reeves
    Stark contrast to the Supremes' much more reserved pop style
    Foreshadowed more soulful singers who would arrive in mid-decade
    Acceptance of the Martha and the Vandellas sound opened the door for Aretha Franklin
    Marvin Gaye
    One of three artist-producers on the Motown label
    Smokey Robinson was one
    Stevie Wonder was the other
    His first hit was in 1962: "Stubborn Kind of Fellow"
    Sixteen more Top 40 singles
    Ten Top 40 hits in duets with Mary Wells, Tammi Terrell, and Kim Weston
    Gaye collaborated with Motown producers on many hit songs
    "Pride and Joy" (p10 r2, 1963) for Mickey Stevenson
    "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved by You)" (p6 r4, 1965) for Holland-Dozier-Holland
    "Ain't That Peculiar" (p8 r1, 1965) for Smokey Robinson
    "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" (p8 r1, 1968)
    (Sung with Tammi Terrell and produced by Ashford and Simpson)
    Gaye produced hits for the Originals in the late 1960s
    "Baby I'm for Real" (p14 r1, 1969)
    "The Bells" (p12 r4, 1970)
    Gaye's most important production was his 1971 concept album What's Going On
    Stevie Wonder
    His first hit was "Fingertips, pt. 2" at age 13
    Live recording of an impromptu performance from a Motown revue concert
    Spontaneity made this one of Motown's biggest hits
    Wonder had several hits through the late 1960s (after his voice changed) on songs he co-wrote
    "Uptight (Everything's Alright)" (p3 r1, 1966)
    "I Was Made to Love Her" (p2 r1, 1967)
    "For Once in My Life" (p2 r2, 1968)
    "My Cherie Amour" (p4 r4, 1969)
    He began producing his own records in 1970
    "Signed, Sealed, Delivered, I'm Yours" (p3 r1)
    He produced his own album Where I'm Coming From in 1971
    That album contained two hit singles
    "If You Really Loved Me" (p8 r4, 1971) and
    "We Can Work It Out" (p13 r3, 1971): a cover of the Beatles' 1965 hit
    Stevie Wonder's writing and production skills helped Motown evolve into the 1970s
    Motown's impact on the civil rights movement
    Gordy truly believed that Motown artists should appeal to white middle class
    The carefully controlled choreography and charm-school training guaranteed that this would happen
    The Brill Building approach to the sound of the music also figured in
    Black Americans embraced the sound
    They knew it sounded "white" but the artists were from their culture
    Motown artists demonstrated that all blacks could assimilate into white culture
    Those who considered Motown to be a "sell-out" of black identity and culture looked to the South
    Southern soul music countered the Motown move away from black cultural roots
    Motown songs maintained a strong sense of heritage while also promoting change
    The Motown model serves as a forerunner to other labels in the 1970s
    George Clinton took black music in new directions that appealed to all racial groups
    Gamble and Huff launched the disco era using black pop as a foundation
    They further extended the Motown/Brill Building approach to orchestrating songs
    Their songs were also driven by up-tempo dance rhythms
    Atlantic, Stax, and Southern Soul
    Atlantic began the 1960s as a highly successful rhythm and blues oriented label
    They had incorporated the Leiber and Stoller/Brill Building approach into their song production
    Their sweet soul artists' records were successful
    Ben E. King
    Producer Jerry Wexler wasn't getting to produce as much as he wanted to
    Leiber and Stoller had taken over much of the production of the label's songs
    Wexler and Bert Berns signed Solomon Burke to the label and co-produced several hits
    "Just Out of Reach (Of My Two Open Arms)" (p24 r7, 1961)
    "If You Need Me" (p37 r2, 1963)
    "Goodbye, Baby (Baby Goodbye)" (p33, 1964)
    "Got to Get You off My Mind" (p22 r1, 1965)
    "Tonight's the Night" (p28 r2, 1965)
    Wexler's renewed enthusiasm for production led him to explore southern black music styles
    Southern black music was more emotional
    It had an exuberance more commonly found in black gospel music
    This quality was not evident in sweet soul songs by the Drifters or Ben E. King
    Jerry Wexler held an important role in developing southern soul music during the 1960s
    The Memphis southern soul connection with New York
    Atlantic records formed a licensing agreement with Memphis-based Stax records
    Licensing agreements were common between large labels and small labels
    The large label pressed copies using either their own label or the smaller label
    These records were distributed by the larger label that had a bigger distribution network
    The larger label took a percentage of the sales
    Everybody wins
    The small label's songs were usually proven regional hits
    These songs were often in a unique style that the large label couldn't reproduce on its own
    Stax records formed in 1960 in Memphis by Jim Stewart and sister Estelle Axton (St+Ax = Stax)
    Original name was Satellite Records
    Wexler liked one of their records by Rufus Thomas called "Cause I Love You"
    Sung by Thomas and his daughter Carla
    Atlantic leased the record and another, "Gee Wiz," in 1961
    "Gee Wiz" was a Top 10 hit in pop and rhythm and blues charts
    Atlantic and Stax set up leasing agreements for many songs during the early 1960s
    "Last Night" (p3 r2, 1961) by the Mar-Keys—an instrumental
    "Green Onions" (p3 r1, 1962) by Booker T. and the MG's—also an instrumental
    "Walkin' the Dog!" (p10 r5, 1963), a dance hit by Rufus Thomas
    The records were recorded in Memphis under conditions similar to Motown's
    In-house band: Booker T. and the MG's
    Booker T. Jones on organ
    Steve Cropper on guitar
    Donald "Duck" Dunn on Bass
    Al Jackson Jr. on drums
    Songwriters involved in the Stax songs were
    David Porter
    Isaac Hayes
    Steve Cropper worked with Otis Redding as co-writer and producer
    The Stax operation was more casual than the Motown and certainly more so than at Atlantic
    Musicians took on whatever role was necessary
    There was more experimentation and spontaneity in the performances
    Whatever the tracks lacked in polish was made up in sincerity and urgency
    The music just sounded like everyone was trying harder and enjoying the effort
    Otis Redding
    One of the most important Stax artists who helped bring attention to the "Stax sound"
    "These Arms of Mine" (r29, 1963)
    While only a rhythm and blues chart Top 40 hit, it brought Redding into the picture
    Redding's vocal style is drawn heavily from gospel singing style
    In 1965 Redding began getting crossover hits
    Redding's gospel-influenced vocals and the hard-driving music accompaniment defined the Stax sound
    "Mr. Pitiful" (p41 r10)
    "I've Been Loving You Too Long" (p21 r2)
    "Respect" (P35 r4)
    "Try a Little Tenderness" (p25 r4, 1966)
    "Sittin' on the Dock of the Bay" went to number one on pop and rhythm and blues charts in 1968
    Redding appeared at the Monterey Pop Festival in the summer of 1967
    His appearance helped acquaint the hippie audience to southern soul music
    Redding was killed in a plane crash in December 1967; he didn't live to see his impact on pop music
    Atlantic Records and the connection to Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals, Alabama
    Atlantic also recorded artists at Rick Hall's Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals
    Wilson Pickett
    Atlantic producer Jerry Wexler discovered Pickett through a demo recording he sang
    Wexler and Bert Berns produced the song "If You Need Me" with singer Solomon Burke in 1961
    The Double L label also released the demo version with Pickett's vocal—competing with Atlantic
    When Pickett came to Atlantic, Wexler immediately signed him to the label
    Wexler took Pickett to Memphis to record with Stax musicians in the Stax style
    They recorded "In the Midnight Hour" (p23 r 1, 1965)
    The song featured a delayed backbeat that Wexler showed the band
    Became a characteristic signature sound of the Stax records
    When studio time was difficult to get at Stax, Wexler moved to Fame studios in Muscle Shoals, Alabama
    Some of Pickett's best-known songs were recorded there
    "Land of 1000 Dances" (p6 r1, 1966)
    "Mustang Sally" (p26 r6, 1966)
    "Funky Broadway" (p8 r1, 1967)
    Atlantic had distributed songs from Dial Records in Nashville that were recorded at Fame Studios
    Joe Tex's hit "Hold What You've Got" (p5 r2, 1965)
    Wexler had licensed Percy Sledge's "When a Man Loves a Woman" (p1 r1, 1965)
    Sledge's hit was recorded at Quinvy Studios near Muscle Shoals, but Fame Studios would do others.
    Sam and Dave with Porter and Hayes
    Sam and Dave were Atlantic artists who recorded at Stax studios
    Stax owner Jim Stewart put them together with songwriters David Porter and Isaac Hayes
    This team functioned similarly to Motown's pairing of writer-producers with artists
    Holland-Dozier-Holland with the Supremes
    Norman Whitfield with the Temptations
    Sam and Dave had several hits as a result of this teamwork
    "You Don't Know Like I Know" (r7, 1966)
    "Hold On, I'm Comin'" (p21 r1, 1966)
    The classic Sam and Dave number "Soul Man" (p2 r1, 1967) is also a result of their efforts
    The Stax sound
    Wilson Pickett's ''In the Midnight Hour" (one of his few hits that actually was recorded there)
    Simple verse form with instrumental interlude
    Four-measure introduction featuring horns
    Two measures of a simple two-chord pattern
    The two-chord pattern is basis for the tune
    Guitar and snare drum play together on beats 2 and 4
    They are so late that they are almost out of time
    Stax recordings don't have backup vocals
    Pickett's vocal is the primary focus of the song
    Instrumental interlude uses a slightly varied chord pattern
    This interlude creates a sense of formal variety
    Southern soul in the Big Apple
    Aretha Franklin
    Gospel-influenced singing style
    Born in Memphis
    Raised in Detroit
    Recorded most of her hits in New York
    Daughter of Reverend C. L. Franklin
    Well-known Baptist preacher in Detroit
    Regularly broadcast his sermons
    Originally signed with Columbia in New York
    Didn't do well there
    Singing in a soft pop mainstream style
    Signed with Atlantic in 1966
    Jerry Wexler produced her first track in Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals
    "I Never Loved a Man (The Way 1 Love You)" (p37 r9, 1967)
    Dispute in the studio between Aretha's husband and someone from the Fame organization
    They want back to New York
    All subsequent tracks were recorded in New York
    Wexler flew in the rhythm section from Muscle Shoals
    Rick Hall didn't know about it
    "Respect" (p 1 r 1, 1967)
    "Baby I Love You" (p4 r1, 1967)
    "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman" (p2 r2, 1967)
    "Chain of Fools" (p2 r1, 1968)
    "Think"(p7 r1, 1968)
    Motown, Atlantic, Stax, and issues of "blackness"
    Consensus is that Motown records were less true to black culture than Stax records
    Motown's musical style is aimed at a pop market
    Both labels had sales as the main goal, so Stax would have aimed at a pop market as well
    Motown arrangements were more inspired by successful pop arrangements
    Stax arrangements appealed to a pop market because of their contrast to Motown
    Stax balanced out the polish of Motown with their sincerity and spontaneity
    Discrepancies do confuse the issue
    Some Motown records sound more like Stax records
    Martha and the Vandellas' "Dancing in the Street" is an example
    Main difference is that they had backup vocal parts
    Rhythm groove and backing musical tracks are tight and simple like at Stax
    Motown was a black-owned company
    Motown producers and songwriters were black
    Motown band was black
    Atlantic and Stax were white-owned
    Atlantic and Stax producers were white
    Stax songwriters were black and white
    Stax band was 50 percent black and 50 percent white
    Everyone at Muscle Shoals except actual singers were white
    The obvious question: Does race actually matter in the note-to-note performance process?
    Musicians involved in all of the records played as required by the producers
    Producers were ultimately responsible for the sound—they made all the creative decisions
    1968 was the year of change for black music in America
    Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King was killed on April 4, 1968
    King was a highly respected advocate of racial equality
    His methods of achieving that were nonviolent
    Racial tensions had been escalating for years—this brought on waves of violent reactions
    Atlantic was sold to Warner Brothers Seven Arts
    That affected the distribution deal with Stax
    Stax ended up being sold to Gulf Western
    The Stax team of writers, musicians, and producers drifted apart
    Changes were occurring at Motown
    Holland-Dozier-Holland left Motown in 1967
    Berry Gordy wanted to move Motown to Hollywood to pursue movie possibilities
    Motown writers began writing more socially significant songs
    As reaction to King's assassination
    More pop music was dealing with social issues
    An example: the Supremes' "Love Child" (p1 r2, 1968) about illegitimate urban children
    By the early 1970s Motown's top artist-writers began focusing on black urban life situations
    James Brown
    Unquestionably the most important black performer of the 1960s
    Brown was a member of the southern Georgia based Fabulous Flames in the 1950s
    Brown substituted for Little Richard when his hit "Tutti Frutti" led him away from Georgia
    Richard was already committed to several performances in the south
    Brown actually performed as Little Richard
    Brown's first success came with "Please Please Please" (r6, 1956) on King Records in Cincinnati
    He had some moderate crossover success with "Try Me" (r1 p48, 1958)
    Brown's early hits were rooted in the doo-wop style with backup vocals sung by the Flames
    Moving from doo-wop to soul
    "Think" (p33 r7, 1960) featured new approaches to rhythm
    The horn section was given a less melodic role
    Horns provided accents for the rhythm section
    Less emphasis on melody and/or harmony in the horn section
    Brown gained a reputation for his active stage performance
    His performance emphasized athletic showmanship
    A combination of singing and extremely energetic dancing
    He developed a trademark closing routine
    Would collapse on the stage in exhaustion
    Would be helped off the stage
    Before he reached the side he would suddenly get energized and run back out and continue
    Brown and his manager, Ben Bart, released a live album in 1963
    Live at the Apollo reached number two on the pop charts
    Good example of his energetic performance style
    Demonstrated his stylistic range
    Beginning in 1964 Brown began to focus his songs on hard-driving rhythmic accompaniment
    "Out of Sight" (p24, 1964)
    "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag, Pt. 1" (p8 r1, 1965)
    "I Got You (I Feel Good)" (p3 r1, 1965)
    "It's a Man's Man's Man's World" (p8 r1, 1966)
    "Cold Sweat, Pt. 1" (p7 r1, 1967)
    Brown took control of all aspects of his music and career
    He wrote and produced his songs
    King Records owner Sid Nathan and manager Ben Bart died in 1968
    After that Brown handled his own business affairs
    The musicians in his band were extremely talented
    Brown rehearsed his band relentlessly
    The band was one of the tightest performance ensembles in the 1960s
    Heavy emphasis on tightly interwoven rhythmic grooves between horns and rhythm section
    He would fine musicians who made mistakes during shows
    The hit "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" exemplifies the James Brown sound
    The track opens with a sustained chord
    Verses employ the 12-bar blues structure
    There is an eight-bar bridge over a static harmony that returns at the end as a coda
    The rhythmic groove is created by the full ensemble
    The arrangement differs from Stax arrangements because of the stops at the ends of the verses
    No backup vocals—separating him from Motown and his earlier 1950s doo-wop style
    Brown was a positive force behind the "Black Pride" movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s
    He did not compromise his black culture in his music
    Motown and Atlantic purposely created music that would appeal to a white middle-class audience
    Brown's turn to strong rhythmic focus in his music foreshadowed 1970s funk
    Brown's contributions to funk make him one of the most important figures in 1970s black pop
    Brown in Boston
    Institutionalized racism in America had reached a dangerous level by the 1960s
    Black musicians formed a strong voice in response to the civil rights movement
    During the 1950s black performers spoke out in the fight for equal rights for black Americans
    Harry Belafonte
    Lena Horne
    Louis Armstrong
    Early 1960s black artists included clear political ideas in their music
    Sam Cooke's "A Change Is Gonna Come,"
    Nina Simone's "Mississippi Goddamn"
    Joe Tex's "The Love You Save"
    Curtis Mayfield's vocal group the Impressions: "People Get Ready" and "Keep On Pushing"
    These and other black artists propelled the Black Pride movement forward during the late 1960s
    James Brown single-handedly calmed rioting in several cities the night following the King assassination
    Black Americans reacted violently to Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination on April 4, 1968
    The next night Brown gave a concert in Boston that was televised across the country
    He started the show by asking the viewers to be calm and stay in—to not destroy their community
    He reminded black viewers about King's dedication to peaceful change
    Boston and several other cities were relatively quiet that night
    He went to Washington, D.C., the next night and gave a speech on television that ended riots there
    James Brown proved that a black musician had the power to bring peace to violent eruption
    He had always maintained, "The music wasn't a part of the revolution. The music was the revolution."

  2. #12
    Join Date
    Dec 2004

    Default Re: R.I.P. Chuck Berry

    Joe, in case you didn't notice the question from above from kahawai chaser:

    (What's the "ridge near the Mississippi bridge" that is referred to SJ?)

    Thanks for the summation Joe, being born in 1949 I was in my teens when the songs mentioned above were released and followed the progress of the music of the times avidly.

    What a time to be alive.

    I was in the middle of Africa, quite isolated but the Radio Station of Lourenço Marques kept us up to date with the latest.

    So haunting to think of the pitch dark nights listening to the radio trying to figure out what all the songs were about but definitely picking up on the vibe anyway.
    It's not the least charm of a theory that it is refutable. The hundred-times-refuted theory of "free will" owes its persistence to this charm alone; some one is always appearing who feels himself strong enough to refute it - Friedrich Nietzsche

  3. #13
    Smiling Down On Youse SurferJoe46's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2005
    Hamilton, Montana, USA

    Default Re: R.I.P. Chuck Berry

    Chickasaw Bluffs

  4. #14
    Smiling Down On Youse SurferJoe46's Avatar
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    May 2005
    Hamilton, Montana, USA

    Default Re: R.I.P. Chuck Berry

    Quote Originally Posted by zqwerty View Post
    Joe, in case you didn't notice the question from above from kahawai chaser:

    Thanks for the summation Joe, being born in 1949 I was in my teens when the songs mentioned above were released and followed the progress of the music of the times avidly.

    What a time to be alive.

    I was in the middle of Africa, quite isolated but the Radio Station of Lourenço Marques kept us up to date with the latest.

    So haunting to think of the pitch dark nights listening to the radio trying to figure out what all the songs were about but definitely picking up on the vibe anyway.
    Would you believe that I typed that on my tablet with a stylus?

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  5. #15
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    Dec 2004

    Default Re: R.I.P. Chuck Berry

    "Would you believe that I typed that on my tablet with a stylus?"

    It's not the least charm of a theory that it is refutable. The hundred-times-refuted theory of "free will" owes its persistence to this charm alone; some one is always appearing who feels himself strong enough to refute it - Friedrich Nietzsche

  6. #16
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Otara, Auckland

    Default Re: R.I.P. Chuck Berry

    Quote Originally Posted by SurferJoe46 View Post
    Chickasaw Bluffs
    OK Thanks, also for the above summary. I notice no "Little Richard" during the 60's Motown phase. but he (re)- appeared in many TV shows in the 80's.
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  7. #17
    Smiling Down On Youse SurferJoe46's Avatar
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    May 2005
    Hamilton, Montana, USA

    Default Re: R.I.P. Chuck Berry

    Help me, information, get in touch with my Marie. She’s the only one who’d phone me here from Memphis Tennessee. Her home is on the south side, high up on a ridge. Just a half a mile from the Mississippi Bridge.
    —Chuck Berry (“Memphis, Tennessee”)

    “Memphis, Tennessee,” a rock and roll song Chuck Berry wrote and first recorded in 1959, tells a story about love, but not in the way the listener first imagines. After a guitar introduction, the singer begins by asking a “long distance operator” to help him make a phone call to Memphis, Tennessee, so that he can talk to “my sweet Marie.”

    Marie has been calling the singer (his uncle took a message from her), but he does not know her phone number. He does know the approximate location of her home, however, and tells the operator it is on Memphis’s “south side, high up on a ridge / Just a half a mile from the Mississippi Bridge.”

    He continues the story, explaining how much he misses Marie “and all the fun we had” until Marie’s mother forced them to end their relationship; he sings sadly “the last time I saw Marie” she was waving him goodbye with “hurry-home drops” trickling down her cheeks.

    “Memphis, Tennessee” is not about a meddlesome parent standing in the way of young lovers.

    At the song’s end, the listener is surprised to learn that “Marie is only six years old” and the true nature of the tale becomes clear.

    It seems Marie’s mother has separated from the singer, “tore apart our happy home,” and is raising Marie by herself in the south Memphis. Thus, Chuck Berry’s voice is that of a lonesome, estranged, father, trying to return a phone call from his child, imploring a telephone operator to “Try to put me through to her in Memphis, Tennessee” (Berry, Autobiography 161, 335).

    “Memphis, Tennessee” was a hit record for Chuck Berry and a score of other musicians who recorded it, from Johnny Rivers to Bo Didley to Buck Owens and the Buckaroos.

    It is a typical late 50s rock and roll song in that it is built on a three-chord, twelve-bar pattern, with sparse, clear instrumentation and compelling syncopated rhythm.

    It combines rhythm and blues with country music vocal and instrumental stylings.

    One of “Memphis, Tennessee”’s greatest strengths is that it is a sad song that is somehow upbeat.

    The driving rhythm guitar combines with the singer’s playful lyrics and his admirable determination to reunite with his daughter to produce hope for a happy ending high up on that Memphis ridge.

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